domenica 13 aprile 2014

COIN-OP: mini arcade cabinet build log

My father bought some wood panels from Ikea. He donated two to build a mini arcade cabinet for my son. The arcade cabinet will use a raspberry pi with PiMame and some Sparkfun arcade goods, like a Zippy arcade joystick and concave buttons. In this post you'll find a short build log. The cabinet is 1 meter tall (39") and 0.42 meter wide (17").

Cutting the hpl boards. Masking tape installed for marking


The monitor, a 19" sony sdm-hs95

Build log:







Monitor installation test


domenica 16 marzo 2014

BOXEDCNC: Brushless ESC pwm response, linearizing output for PID control, and smoothing the sensor values

Once assembled and tested, i had a lot of data collected from brushless spindle controller, i've used to implements a better control method, a PID control. I've spent long time updating the code to find what was going wrong. Regarding PID, there are a lot of good articles in the web, some implemented also on the Arduino universe. Start your readings from the incredible series of post from Brett, if you want to know more about PID.
In this post i want to describe my solution to some of the headache i had to implement:
  1. Keep it fast if what you want to control react fast (a spindle is really different from sous-vide or temperature PID room controller). My timing between refresh is now 50ms.
  2. Keep it steady, eliminating every distraction from the PID computation (like delays).
  3. Linearize the output of the PID, before applying to the ESC to get rid of the PID constants.
  4. Try to guess the output value, before enabling PID.
  5. Divide the PID constants in aggressive and conservative variants depending from the error between desired set point and actual reading.
  6. Don't try to find a magic method to find constants. Try various values starting only from progressive, then enabling integrative, and only at last using derivative.
The next image shows the schematic of the brushless controller. There are four sensors in the system, but the fourth is not showed because is a temperature sensor.



The main loop in CNC mode use the GCode Spindle commands (like S5000) as target value to control with PID in a closed loop the motor RPM, trying to minimize the error between target and actual speed.


The major drawback i discovered using the affordable Turnigy ESC is the non linear response of the motor's rpm in the basic free spinning condition (without torque applied). As you can see in the next image, the RPM relation between Arduino PWM uS interval and motor RPM is something similar to a quartic function. I think this is quite common when using the writeMicroseconds function approach. In fact you can control the servo with high precision writing an interval typically between 1000uS and 2000uS. In the next graph is possible to see the real data registered regarding RPM and the Power Source output tension and current given to the ESC. Without any resistance applied to the motor's  shaft, the ESC absorbs circa 70W at the maximum speed. The power source drop voltage between zero and maximum speed is only 0.30V (from 12.87V to 12.50V).


To avoid strange PID behaviors, i needed to implement a fast transformation function. 
The rest of the post is about how i've implemented a SMA (Simple Moving Average) to smooth the RPM readings, and about the linearization of the output of the ESC.

The start is a simple moving average using integer array to take care of the fast RPM refresh process, without dedicated onboard hardware. This was software implemented using a simple array which hold a certain number of integer numbers (from 30 to 50). These values are the microseconds between two consequents falling edge (or raising, is the same) of the rpm optical sensor, collected on   interrupt pin. This happen continuously with a period in a range from 2.000 and 15.000 uS. The array index is incremented every interrupt, and is zeroed using the modulo operator in one code row.
The result is a Simple Moving Average of the continuous RPM data, which is implemented using  this code in the interrupt function:
void rpmMeter() //INTERRUPT CALLED FUNCTION
 {
   RPMIndex = (RPMIndex +1)%(RPMIndexSize-1); 
   RPMTimes[RPMIndex] = micros() - RPMTimeold;
   RPMTimeold = micros();
 };
Once 50ms i compute the sum of the array, and divide the result by number of elements in the array to obtain a smoothed RPM fresh value.

The next step is to transform the output from the horrible quartic function to a simple linear response.
This happens using another array containing the uS timing values at which corresponds the desired output. I think this is a fast method because the loop only need to lookup in a prewritten array using the index as input.


The next graph shows the test results without smoothing (real data). In the x axis there are the values of the linearized output range, in the y axis the RPM logged.



domenica 19 gennaio 2014

PEATOL/TAIG: the most beautiful affordable metal lathe




I bought a PEATOL/TAIG because i need a small lathe (despite i have a 7x20 lathe) i can operate in my house. I have known about it from the conspicuous fans all over the world.


Peatol/Taig lathe overview

The Peatol 0,18kW motor, 1360 rpm

Here some links if you want to know more about PEATOL/TAIG:
Peatol Machine Tools: the home of PEATOL/LATHE;
Deansphotografica: beautiful projects;
CarterTools: the biggest resource i know about taig;
LeeValley Instruction booklet;

I received it from Peter of Peatol (UK) on August, and now i'm showing it once assembled the base, the motor and it's fully functional. The motor was blue so i repainted to black.

I assembled also the motor mount from aluminium with primitives dovetails. My version of lathe come with powerfeed already installed and a sturdy block of aluminium for raise the entire lathe.

This is my start package:

1015Micro lathe with power feed
1030Four jaw chuck, with reversible, heat-treated steel jaws
10921/16"-3/8" Jacobs chuck
1150Drilling tailstock - lever operated
1151Needle bearing centre - spring loaded
1160Spare belt
11616 step pulley set (2 pulleys) including Vee belt for 11mm motor shaft
10956 piece tool bit set - HSS, left & right, round nose, boring bar, cutoff, 45 degree chamfer
1200Compound top slide - mounts on cross-slide for cutting angles and tapers - with toolpost
1002New electric motor - 11mm shaft
 ?Drill chuck arbour - attaches Jacobs chucks to headstock spindle
1173T-bar cutoff tool, height adjustable


Peter form Peatol said me this is a very comprehensive set of components to give a working lathe, and i must admit he was right.
For the base i used a wood block from a ikea countertop (very hard), a drip pan upside down and a wooden frame to finish the base. To lock the lathe and the motor's dovetail to the wood base i used brass barrels in the bottom plane.


A review: this lathe is beautiful, sturdy, small, precise, simple to assemble and use. A must for every workshop. This is only a start because there are a lot of implementations you can do to this little lathe.



The pulley system, note the rubber band
The toolpost, simple and effective
To enable the power feed you simply lock the handywheel 
I think i will replace the spring with a coupler 
The Taig headstock


My home made motor mount with dovetails

The depth stop

I bought also two IGaging Scales (IGaging site), a 6" and a 12" which i've cut to size and mounted on X and Y axes. I've planned to convert the DRO to Yuriy's Touch Dro (Yuriy's Toys Dro) using a tablet and a TI launchpad.



A closeup of the lathe and IGaging Scale 
The IGaging side support
The other IGaging support
The stock IGaging magnetic reader.
With IGaging in this position you lose some x width with tool post installed.

lunedì 6 gennaio 2014

BOXED CNC: Brushless Spindle & Controller, MpIde sketch

Di seguito il link allo sketch per il Fubarino SD (MPIDE) da scaricare:

Download link: PDE SKETCH MPIDE

Richiede le seguenti librerie standard:

  • Servo.h
  • LiquidCrystal.h
  • Bounce.h
  • PID_v1.h
  • stdlib.h:

I pin utilizzati:
  • LCD RS = 10;
  • LCD E = 11;
  • LCD DB4 = 12;
  • LCD DB5 = 13;
  • LCD DB6 = 14;
  • LCD DB7 = 15;
  • VOLTAGE SENSE = A1
  • CURRENT SENSE = A3
  • RPM INTERRUPT = 4
  • SPINDLE PWM = 9

CNC Embroidery. Elettronica di controllo II

Un avanzamento sull'elettronica di controllo dell'embroidery.

L'elettronica è finalmente nella sua sede. Ho realizzato un contenitore con della plastica, in modo da formare dei compartimenti isolati e delle vie cavo dedicate.






Come previsto, l'elettronica è così composta:
  • 1 x Raspberry PI
  • 1 x Wifi key [Perfettamente funzionante con il Raspberry]
  • 1 x Arduino Uno
  • 3 x PoStep25
  • Alimentatori vari







sabato 4 gennaio 2014

BOXED CNC: Brushless Spindle & Controller

Per le vacanze di natale ho fatto passi avanti su un progetto che avevo in mente da tempo: la sostituzione del motore della MF70 con un motore brushless.

Un ringraziamento per holcon1 che ha individuato un motore adatto alla conversione: Youtube video

Il sistema è composto da un motore brushless (Hobbyking NTM 3536 - 1800kV - 875W), pilotato con un Turnigy Plush 80A e comandato da un Fubarino SD (un micro Arduino-inspired con un potente PIC a 32 bit, 80Mhz) ed alimentato da un alimentatore 12V da 85A inizialmente destinato ad un server. La velocità massima attesa è di 22kRPM, poco superiore a quella originale della MF70.


Il controller ha 3 modalità di funzionamento, stand-by, manuale e cnc (accetta comandi via usb).
Per la modalità manuale c'è un pratico e preciso potenziometro multigiro (non si può abilitare il motore se il potenziometro non è a zero). Per la modalità CNC sono accettati i comandi standard per l'accensione dello spindle, impostazione della velocità, stop dello spindle.




Completato un sensore di tensione con un voltage divider, da completare il sensore di corrente e RPM (per il PID): ho calibrato la lettura confrontandola con il multimetro digitale.

Per far sapere alla PSU di fornire i 12V è stato necessario collegare due (Enable e Voltage Sensing).



Ho scoperto che l'albero del motore ha un diametro di poco inferiore ai 4mm ed il pignone standard della MF70 non calza bene (troppo grande). Al momento ho provato a brasarlo e fissarlo, ma temo che la tenuta meccanica non sia eccezionale. Di seguito anche un adattatore che ho fatto al volo con il vecchio motore da un pezzo di ottone da 10 mm di spessore.



Quando potrò ordinare il kit mandrino della Usovo (ER11 Collet adapter) spero si possa risolvere diversamente l'accoppiamento.